This scientific research is for informational use only. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Care/of provides this information as a service. This information should not be read to recommend or endorse any specific products.
Our Focus formula includes vitamin B12 and American ginseng which have been clinically studied for their impact on cognitive function. Research has shown that there is a positive correlation between B12 intake and neurological function. American ginseng has been shown to improve both working memory performance and spatial working memory.*
Ginkgo biloba extract is derived from the leaves of the world’s most ancient tree - the ginkgo biloba tree. Ginkgo biloba leaf has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to support a variety of cognitive ailments. Mechanism of action studies have suggested that the cognitive enhancing effects of ginkgo biloba extract may be due to its role in regulating brain function, such as sensory processing and attention. Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that ginkgo biloba extract enhanced memory processes such as working memory and memory consolidation by restoring muscarinic receptors responsible for cognitive behavior, and increasing power in areas of the frontal lobe that generate working memory.
Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract
American Botanical Council, Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monograph, 2020
Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants
Stough et al, International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 4. 131-134, 2001
Panax quinquefolius, commonly referred to as American ginseng, is a perennial herb that is distributed in the eastern temperate forest areas of North America. Ginseng extracts are widely acknowledged for their effects on the central nervous system by modulating neurotransmission, enhancing memory and learning, and providing neuroprotection. In mechanism of action studies ginsenoside, a natural compound found in ginseng, has been shown to target memory. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, ginseng was associated with a significant enhancement to working memory performance, including spatial working memory. Significant improvements to working memory speed and self-rated calmness were also observed.
Adaptogens. Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief
Winston and Maimes, Healing Arts Press. Rochester, Vermont, 2007
Chemical and pharmacological studies of saponins with a focus on American ginseng
Yuan et al., Journal of ginseng research 34(3), 160-167, 2010
Neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides
Rausch et al., Neurobiol Exp. 66: 369-375, 2006
Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function an acute,randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.
Scholey et al., Psychopharmacology. 212:345-356, 2010
Improved working memory performance following administration of a single dose of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) to healthy middle-age adults
Ossoukhova et al., Human Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. 30:108-122, 2015
It is well established in scientific literature that vitamin B12 plays a central role in functions of the brain and nervous system. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin found in substantial quantities only in foods of animal origin or fortified foods. If the consumption of animal foods is very low or absent in one’s diet, there are very few plant foods containing vitamin B12 making it an essential vitamin to supplement. A longitudinal cohort study on older adults concluded that low vitamin B12 levels were associated with more rapid cognitive decline. In another cross-sectional study conducted on adults, vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with sensory and motor peripheral nerve function impairment, which can lead to a decline in physical function.
IOM (Institute of Medicine)
(In Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline, National Academies Press, 1998
Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults
Clarke et al, Am J Clin Nutr. Nov;86(5):1384-91, 2007
The Relationship of Vitamin B12 and Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function in Older Adults.
Leishear et al., J Am Geriatr Soc. Jun; 60(6): 1057-1063, 2012
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and contribution to normal neurological and psychological functions, … pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006.
EFSA Journal, 8(10): 1756, 2010