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This scientific research is for informational use only. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Care/of provides this information as a service. This information should not be read to recommend or endorse any specific products.

This blend of Vitamin B12, citicoline, and caffeine supports brain health and alertness. Vitamin B12 is an essential component of DNA and nervous system processes. Citicoline, a kind of phospholipid crosses the blood-brain barrier, can increase the production of neurotransmitters in the nervous system, boosting cognitive function. Widely used for focus and attention, caffeine supports mental alertness by stimulating the central nervous system.*

Vitamin B-12

Vitamin B12 plays an important role in supplying essential methyl groups for protein and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 is bound to the protein in food and hydrochloric acid in the stomach release B12 from protein during digestion. Once released, B12 combines with a substance called instrinsic factor. In humans, Vitamin B12 is required coenzyme for two important enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. (3-5) Methionine synthase, uses the chemical form of the vitamin which has a methyl group attached to the cobalt and is called methylcobalamin. Methionine synthase catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine via the methionine cycle and regenerates tetrahydrofolate (THF) (3,4). Unlike the other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin B12 is stored in the liver, primarily in the form of adenosylcobalamin. L-Methylmalonyl CoA mutase requires adenosylcobalamin for the conversion of L-methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl-CoA, an important intermediary in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Methylmalonyl CoA mutase, uses a form of vitamin B12 that has a 5’-adeoxyadenosyl moiety attached to the cobalt and is called 5’deoxyadenosylcobalamin, or coenzyme B12. In nature, there are two other forms of vitamin B12: hydroxycobalamin and aquacobalamin, where hydroxyl and water groups, respectively, are attached to the cobalt. The synthetic form of vitamin B12 found in supplements and fortified foods is cyanocobalamin, which has cyanide attached to the cobalt. These three forms of vitamin B12 are enzymatically activated to the methyl- or deoxyadenosylcobalamins in all mammalian cells. (3, 5).

References
  1. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition, 2nd ed.
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements & World Health Organization. Dept. of Nutrition for Health and Development. ,
    Geneva : World Health Organization.,
    2005
  2. The metabolic processes of folic acid and Vitamin B12 deficiency.
    Mahmood L,
    J Health Res Rev,
    2014
  3. Vitamins Their Role in the Human Body
    G.F.M. Ball,
    Blackwell Publishing Ltd.,
    2004

Caffeine

Numerous studies have shown that caffeine is known to exert positive effects on cognitive performance such as reaction time, alertness, and sustained attention. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies found that moderate levels of caffeine enhanced sustained attention and alertness, decreased feelings of mental fatigue, reduced reaction time, improved performance on attention tasks and increased overall mood ratings.

References
  1. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood.
    Dodd FL, Kennedy DO, Riby LM,
    Psychopharmacology,
    2015
  2. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.
    Wilhelmus MM, Hay JL, Zuiker R, Okkerse P, Perdrieu C et al.,
    Journal of Pscyhopharmacology,
    2017
  3. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass (ID 735, 1484), increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight (ID 1487), increased alertness (ID 736, 1101, 1187, 1485, 1491, 2063, 2103) and increased attention (ID 736, 1485, 1491, 2375) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006.
    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA),
    EFSA Journal,
    2011
The following scientific research is for informational use only. Care/of provides this information as a service and does not receive compensation for studies referenced. This information should not be read to recommend or endorse any specific products. Dietary supplements are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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